NAWAPA and Cosmic Radiation
November 4, 2010 • 3:25PM

by Benjamin Deniston

Download PDF version: NAWAPA and Cosmic Radiation.pdf

Construction of the North American Water and Power Alliance (NAWAPA) and related elements will require major development and population growth in the northern-most regions of our continent. The conditions of the polar regions are unique on our planet --not simply in terms of the weather -- but also because of the proximity to the magnetic north pole, the unique electromagnetic radiation (light) conditions of the geographic north pole, and the broader electro-magnetic phenomena clued to us by the beauty of the aurora borealis. Along with its planetary effects as a continental water management system, NAWAPA, being a science driver in the true sense of the term, will elevate mankind's understanding of our planetary existence to a higher level. The Earth as we know it is defined by a stellar system, and our earth and stellar system are defined by a galactic system. Our galaxy did not simply spin off these subsystems, to be left floating through space. The galactic-stellar-earth system of anti-entropic development continues, as this process is defined by the role of cosmic radiation.

Always, the starting point in understanding this is recognizing the implications of the fact that mankind exists, as a willfully creative being, within our galaxy. Let that reality reveal to us the nature of the universe, and let our willful creation of the NAWAPA project teach us of that reality.

See Box 1:

NAWAPA'S NORTHERN COMPONENTS

The NAWAPA system is designed to collect 20 percent of the fresh water runoff of Alaska and northern Canada, storing it in what will be the largest reservoirs ever constructed, from which the water will be brought down into the arid regions of central Canada, the western United States and northern Mexico through a series of canals, aquaducts, and reservoirs. This will provide the water for 20 to 50 million acres of new farm land and forests, in addition to completely solving shortages in present systems (as in California, Arizona, Nevada, etc.). Such new "greening" will cool local climates and increase rainfall, with the same water being recycled multiple times over land due to its interaction with plant life, before it again reaches the ocean.

In the northern most-regions of NAWAPA, where the water is collected, the head waters of the Susitna, Copper, Tanana and Yukon rivers will be dammed, forming reservoirs connected through a series of equalizing tunnels, creating functionally a single body of water with a storage capacity of 1,500,000,000 acre feet. Dwarfing the Hoover Dam's Lake Mead (28,000,000 acre feet of storage, and presently falling to disastrously low levels), this system can hold over three times the yearly water usage of the entire United States.

These reservoirs will require some of the largest dams ever built, such as the Chitna dam planned for the Copper river, which is expected to stand at 1,700 feet, equivalant in height to building the Hoover Dam on top of the tallest dam in the world (China's Jinping-1 Dam). Tunnels, such as the 30 mile Alaska Tunnel under the Alaskan Mountain Range (connecting the Copper and Tanana reservoirs), along with power stations, new rail lines to connect the entire area, and more, will take a significant amount of high skill-level manpower. Connecting these new rail systems to a Bering Strait tunnel or bridge, for a rail line into Asia, is a related, extremely significant project (both in terms of its construction requirements, and its benefits for the entirety of Eurasia and the Americas).

In all, this region is set for major population growth and economic development with NAWAPA.

For more see:

 

COSMIC RADIATION

In the early 17th century, the understanding of cosmic radiation's resonance with processes on the Earth was presented as a scientific challenge by Johannes Kepler, specifically in his "The Harmonies of the World." Over three centuries later, Vladimir Vernadsky updated that challenge in the opening section of his book, "The Biosphere." 1"The Biosphere," first published in Russian in 1926; English translation, David B. Langmuir, New York, Copernicus, 1998 In his groundbreaking work, the implications of which still have not fully penetrated the scientific community, the role of living matter is presented as a geological and planetary force, being the driving force of a distinct domain, the biosphere-- a region whose characteristics are not reducible to abiotic science. Investigating the biosphere, Vernadsky starts by posing the challenge of understanding the role of cosmic radiation.

 
"The face of the Earth viewed from celestial space presents a unique appearance, different from all other heavenly bodies. The surface that separates the planet from the cosmic medium is the biosphere, visible principally because of light from the sun, although it also receives an infinite number of other radiations from space, of which only a small fraction are visible to us. We hardly realize the variety and importance of these rays, which cover a huge range of wavelengths."

...

"A new character is imparted to the planet by this powerful cosmic force. The radiations that pour upon the Earth cause the biosphere to take on properties unknown to lifeless planetary surfaces, and thus transform the face of the Earth. Activated by radiation, the matter of the biosphere collects and redistributes solar energy, and converts it ultimately into free energy capable of doing work on Earth.

"The outer layer of the Earth must, therefore, not be considered as a region of matter alone, but also as a region of energy and a source of transformation of the planet. To a great extent, exogenous cosmic forces shape the face of the Earth, and as a result, the biosphere differs historically from other parts of the planet. This biosphere plays an extraordinary planetary role."

...

"We arrive at this conclusion via our understanding of the matter of the biosphere - an understanding that had been profoundly modified by contemporary evidence that this matter is the direct manifestation of cosmic forces acting upon the Earth."

-V. I. Vernadsky, The Biosphere

 
As we have entered the space age, Vernadsky's views have proven true for not just the study of the biosphere, but a whole array of sciences, although the general implications are not understood or addressed. Influences which cannot be ignored are worked into present modes of understanding, but the implied systematic shift in the outlook of society has been lacking. In exactly this sense, the phrase “space weather” is gaining increasing use as a description of the Earth-felt effects of our interaction with cosmic radiation.

The year 1859 witnessed probably the largest "space weather" event on record, though the ability to record such events did not go back much further. A period of intense solar activity in September of that year produced aurorae (usually only seen in the far north, and that relatively rarely) all the way down to Hawaii, Cuba, and El Salvador. At peak intensity one could read newspaper print in the middle of the night in Boston by the aurora light alone! The electrical activity was so intense that telegraph stations worldwide went wild, some catching fire. To protect the systems, telegraph operators disconnected their power supplies, but in one case, the line, from Boston to Portland, Maine, was operated solely by the electricity in the atmosphere.

 

Boston: 'Please cut off your battery [power source] entirely for fifteen minutes.'
Portland: 'Will do so. It is now disconnected.'
Boston: 'Mine is disconnected, and we are working with the auroral current. How do you receive my writing?'
Portland: 'Better than with our batteries on...'2http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/06may_carringtonflare/

 

The conversation continued for two hours.

Large events have grabbed headlines more recently as well, sometimes causing power outages, such as the March 1989 geomagnetic storm which caused a blackout of the province of Quebec, and sometimes damaging or destroying satellites, as in the October 2003 solar storm. Currently, there is increasing work being done on modeling and attempting to forecast “space weather.” It was quickly determined, however, that the phenomena are not reducible to a scalar measure of a simple intensity value of solar activity, but a variety of interdependent factors (including changes in the earth environment) have to be considered, forming a complex interaction in which even seemingly weak forces can produce very significant effects. Even after a quarter century of space exploration, the degree of complexity and structure in the interplanetary medium and in the Earth-Sun connections continues to surprised us.

The Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere shield life from what would otherwise be qualities and intensities of radiation that would prove lethal to most advanced forms of life, while allowing certain qualities through that are crucial for life (flows that come not just from the sun, but from interstellar and galactic processes). The electromagnetic radiation from the sun is not responsive to our magnetic field, and interacts directly with the atmosphere, generating the ionosphere, ozone layer, and related structures. Most of the charged radiation flows (identified variously as “solar wind,” “coronal mass ejections” (CME), fluxes of “energetic particles,” plasmas, etc.) are either deflected or brought into a structured organization around the earth by our magnetic field, creating the magnetosphere, radiation belts, plasmasphere, the ring current, magnetotail, and related phenomena.

 


Interaction of the solar electromagnetic radiation with the Earth's atmosphere. Credit: NASA

 


The Earth's magnetosphere and related structures in the interplanetary medium. Credit: NASA

 
On our end, the most intense regions of direct interaction between these structures and the surface of the earth are at the north and south poles. In the construction of the northern portions of the NAWAPA, we will be in this singular region in our connection to the cosmos, as dancing aurorae bear the bright banner, alerting us to a complex process that is otherwise invisible to our immediate senses.
 


Aurora. Image credit: NASA

 

EMPTY SPACE?

However, the Earth's cosmic radiation connection is not fixed, nor is it well understood. The past decades of space exploration has brought increasing certainty, that we will continue to be surprised by what we find above our home.

A quick examination of the types of anomalous activity we have detected, and the quoted attempts to describe these perplexing structures, serves well to set up further questions.

In the radiation (Van Allen) belts, the positively and negatively charged material rotate around the Earth in opposite directions, inducing a magnetic field which counteracts the geomagnetic field (felt all the way down to the surface of the Earth). In March of 1991, a “coronal mass ejection” (CME) collided with the Earth's magnetic field, creating a new radiation belt that was detected for 7 months (our detection only stopped because a battery failure shut down the relevant monitoring satellite). This was the first time that we had seen the creation of a new belt since 1962, when the US Air Force detonated a hydrogen bomb above the atmosphere to test its atmospheric effects. Unlike the 1962 event, where the H-bomb-generated belt quickly dissipated into a homogenous distribution, the new belt in the 1991 CME incident maintained an asymmetrical structure for several rotations around the Earth through what were called “drift echos,” as though the CME wanted to maintain its structure even within the earth environment. 3http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/wbirthrb.html

Over the following two decades, we have significantly expanded our orbital instrumentation in both number and variety, and the specialists continue to be surprised by what they find. “Space tornadoes,” plasmas rotating at speeds of over a million miles per hour, were described in an April 2009 release based on the findings of NASA's THEMIS space probe program 4Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, http://www.NASA.gov/THEMIS, with cross-sections as large as the earth, carrying currents over 100,000 amperes into the ionosphere to power the auroras. 5http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2009/04/23_keiling.shtml

In a previous 2008 finding, THEMIS compared measurements with the ESA's Cluster mission (sci.esa.int/cluster/) to identify what they described as “magnetic portals,” twice as wide as the earth, opening up 93 million mile connections directly between the earth and the sun for brief periods of time, occurring as often as once every 8 minutes. Calling these “flux transfer events,” the release describes these as direct “magnetic connections” to the sun, through which “tons of high-energy particles may flow” to the Earth, matter that would have otherwise been blocked by the magnetosphere.6http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/30oct_ftes/ In July of this year a NASA release discussed another discovered phenomenon, “spacequakes,” in which the effects of “magnetic reconnection” (a term used to describe a phenomenon which can drive aurorae) can cause reverberations in the magnetic field penetrating all the way down to the surface of the Earth. Associated with this, vortices the size of the earth appear and reappear with alternating directions of rotation, situated on either side of the initial location of impact.7http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2010/27jul_spacequakes/

In addition to these large unexpected structural formations relating to the Earth-Sun interactions, other anomalous events raise more questions. During what is called the “May 1999 event,” for two days the sun nearly completely stopped producing solar wind: the output dropping 98% (the Helium flux dropped 99.9% and heavier components of the solar wind stopped completely). Note that the relevant sun spot cycle (“Solar Cycle 23”) had started in 1995, so this event occurred a significant time into this cycle (i.e. it was not a period of low sun spot activity). On our end a number of changes occurred that we had never witnessed before. The magnetosphere grew to 5-6 times its normal size, engulfing the moon, while the Van Allen belts dissipated, and were severely depleted for several months after the two day solar shutdown. The shape of the Earth's magnetic field changed, and there were unusual aurora directly over the poles. To this day, no one knows why the sun's solar wind suddenly ran dry. 8See,http://www.solarviews.com/eng/sunpr1.htm and http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/istp/events/1999may10/

Evidence indicates that Earth-Sun relationship is a qualitative one, and not a simple question of the intensity of the sun's “blasting” the Earth. The “Great Breach of June 2007” came from what was described as a “gentle gust” of solar wind. Resulting from this gentle gust, a hole four times wider than the earth opened up in the earth's magnetosphere, allowing for a direct flow of material from the sun to the earth an order of magnitude larger than was even thought possible. What was shocking to experts, in addition to the fact that the triggering solar activity was not intense, was that the magnetic polarity of the solar wind was oriented in a direction that was thought to strengthen the earth's magnetosphere, not weaken it (i.e. the effect on the magnetosphere was not only more intense then expected, but was the complete opposite type of effect than expected). One expert was quoted saying, "This completely overturns our understanding of things." 9http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2008/16dec_giantbreach/

Such cases open real questions about what it actually going on in interplanetary "space." Far from being a boring void, it is very structured, changing rapidly, and the changes are subject to seemingly weak but qualitatively significant interactions. Any full understanding will require, at least, two principled considerations. First, a fuller understanding of the role of the interaction with the biosphere. The demonstrated, necessary role of cosmic radiation in the development of the biosphere, pushes the considerations of the nature of the source and medium of this cosmic radiation to a level that incorporates its role in, at least, mediating the development of life on earth. The second consideration to be introduced is situating our solar system in its proper functional role within the galaxy.

The scientific community has been presented with unresolved correlations between galactic cycles and long term cycles of rise and fall in biodiversity here on Earth over the Phanerozoic Eon (generally believed to cover the past 1/2 billion years). As the overall biodiversity has steadily increased, along with the planetary significance and complexity of life steadily increasing, there appear to be two cyclic rhythms of rapid increase and decrease in the number of distinct genera found in the fossil record (biodiversity). Interestingly, periods of glaciation, sea level changes, and volcanic activity all share correlations with these two cycles in biodiversity. Two distinct theorized cycles of motion of our solar system through the galaxy have been developed as unrelated models, but which produce periods that match the biodiversity and other cycles. How exactly these processes interrelate is not known, but there are clear lines of inquiry that await further investigation. The open question is how galactic cosmic radiation cycles resonate with the development of our planet and life.


This is a truncated presentation of an open investigation. For a fuller presentation of the matter see,
Our Extraterrestrial Imperative, Episode 2 - Cosmic Rays
Kesha Rogers' Victory Launches the Rebirth of a Mars Colonization Policy!

 

This raises another question: how does the Sun's activity change in varying galactic cosmic radiation environments, and how do the structure of interplanetary space and the Earth-Sun connections change? Already there are enough cases of solar activity that either were completely unexpected or are still anomalous from the standpoint of the “standard model,” that demand an open-minded approach as to what exactly is going on with the sun. Because of the primary functional role of the sun in the ongoing anti-entropic development of the biosphere, we must start from the standpoint that the processes organizing the sun must share in some fundamental characteristic as those organizing the development of the biosphere. The same can be argued for the role of the galaxy.

See Box 2:

Standing Questions For 'Our Mr. Sun'

Where is Capra's "Magic Screen" when you need it? Still today, numerous properties of the Sun remain anomalous, awaiting revolutions in our understanding.

Start with measurements of temperature. At the "surface" of the sun (the photosphere) we find around 5,800 Kelvin. The corona begins 2,000 kilometers "above" this, and reaches temperatures up to 2,000,000 K (a 350 fold increase). Why this dramatic temperature leap? Similar temperature questions arise with sun spots. Being holes in the "photosphere," this is the deepest we can see directly into the sun, and if the Sun is powered by an internally driven fusion heat engine, one might think that they would show the highest temperatures seen on the sun, or at least hotter than the surface. Surprisingly, they are 2,000 K cooler than the photosphere(5,800 K), and the coolest thing we measure on the sun (4,000 Kelvin).

Another anomaly awaiting explanation is how the solar wind (including the more intense solar flares and CMEs) even leaves the surface of the sun, or why it steadily picks up speed as it moves farther away from the sun.

Also, the "neutrino" flux expected from the sun has provided problems for decades. It was found that the detected volume is much lower than expected, supposedly later accounted for by the neutrinos changing their "flavor" (type) in their transit to the Earth.

To the claims that some of these anomalous properties are now "explained" by the current model, pose the question: "why were they not predicted, or even expected in any form?" Most models can be tweaked and reworked into quite complicated systems that will represent, if in a limited sense, properties that were observed after the fact and then worked into the model. That is not science. This author hesitates at using the analogy of Ptolemy's epicycle system for planetary motions, for fear that loose overuse has banalized its pedagogical value as an example. Still, it is a very useful comparison, specifically as addressed by Johannes Kepler in his own words, in his 1609 "The New Astronomy." Kepler treats not only the system of Ptolemy, but also those of Copernicus and Tycho Brahe (his famous "equivalence of hypotheses"), and the implied inherent failure in statistical models.10The author can not stress enough the importance of Kepler's original works. If his "The New Astronomy" and "The Harmonies of the Worlds," taken together, were understood by leading scientists today, science, and society more generally, would be on a completely different level today.

 

PHYSICAL SPACE-TIME

As is clear form the material presented thus far, space is not empty!

In the farthest reaches of our investigations we have yet to reach anything resembling "empty space," and there are numerous scientific anomalies that will not see fruitful resolution until the investigations abandon such misconceptions, and start from a non-reductionist notion of a physical-space-time. Such mental constructions as “space” and “particles in space,” are products, not of science, but of a mental handicap, empiricism, where the function of the mind is shackled to think in terms of a false belief in sense perception as a direct reading of the universe. 11For the history of the imperial introduction of modern empiricism see "The True History of Today's Scientific and Economic Empiricism," by Michael Kirsch. For example, a related belief is that radioactive decay could be an internal property of a “particle,” the atom, which could ever exist as an independent object, having intrinsic internal properties no matter where it is placed within an indistinguishable void of “space.” However, such a view becomes problematic.

A group working out of Purdue University in Indiana, has reported that the decay rates of certain radioactive isotopes actually vary in direct correlation with solar distance and solar activity. 12"Evidence for Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance," J. Jenkins, E. Fischbach, et al, 2008; "Evidence for Solar Influences on Nuclear Decay Rates," J. Jenkins, E. Fischbach, et al, 2010. The decay rates of Silicon-32 (half-life 100 years) and Radium-226 (half-life 1600 years) were both found to have small, but noticeable yearly variations corresponding to the Earth's distance from the sun. It is worth noting, these two radioactive isotopes have different types of decay (32Si, beta decay; 226Ra, alpha decay). The authors of these studies address legitimate concerns that the measurements of annual decay-rate variation could be due to seasonal/environmental effects on the instrumentation used to measure the decay rates, and not changes in the intrinsic decay rates themselves. Strong evidence is presented to set aside any of these concerns, opening up the strong likelihood that Rutherford was wrong in claiming that radioactive decay rates were completely independent of external conditions. Perhaps making this most clear is a third case presented by the group:13"Perturbation of Nuclear Decay Rates During the Solar Flare of 13 December 2006," J. Jenkins and E. Fischbach, 2008. the decay rate of Manganese 54 (half-life 312.2 days) was shown to decrease in correspondence with the solar flares of December 2006. Three peaks of solar activity, December 14, 17, and 22, corresponded to three drops in the decay rate. The time between each solar effect and the corresponding decay rate variation was 40 minutes, too short for any known global weather/environmental changes to occur and affect the instrumentation. 14For a video presentation see, "Decay Rates and Time."

Though certain causal mechanisms have been put forward and investigated by this group, no conclusive cause has been found. The most useful approach will be to abandon the assumptions of independent “particles” bouncing around in an empty “space,” over the course of “time.” Instead, we should ask, what is the quality of developing physical-space-time indicated by these paradoxical phenomena?

Similar evidence, in terms of its challenging the conception of a self-evident state of “matter,” has been presented in the case of living organisms. Although too much to address in detail here, evidence indicates that “matter” acts differently when it is operating within the physical-space-time of a living organism compared to its operation outside of that organism. The activity of certain organisms in selecting specific isotopes presents a little explored front in this investigation. Some of the author's colleagues have presented the beginnings of such investigations.15Isotopes and Life: Considerations for Space Colonization,” by Meghan Rouillard.

THE BIOSPHERE

The coming revolutions in the physical sciences will necessarily involve two major considerations. The first being to follow through on the universal implications of Vernadsky's discovery that the Earth is shaped by the distinct character of three incommensurable (non-reducible) but interacting phase spaces (the abiotic or lithosphere; the domain of life, the biosphere; and the higher domain of human creative thought, the noosphere). The second is to develop an approach to understanding of the role of cosmic radiation in the development of the earth, the biosphere, and all processes therein: an approach which were to subsume attempts to limit such investigations solely to what we witness on the earth. Again, look at the implications of NAWAPA's northern locations.

Life in all its functions, from cellular activity to global systems, from daily functioning to long term evolution, is highly tuned to qualitative conditions of cosmic radiation. These can often appear to be quantitatively "weak" forces, processes of apparently low importance when viewed quantitatively, but which are of a required characteristic quality to resonate with certain processes, producing the greatest of effects.

For example, one aspect that will require more investigation is the role of the geomagnetic field for life.

Probably not coincidentally, the magnetic field of the Earth is know to respond to solar activity. The geomagnetic north pole presently lies in the arctic region, near Canada's Ellesmere Island, defining a singularity point in the Earth's magnetic field. The magnetic poles wander relatively quickly around the polar regions, even periodically flipping over longer periods of time.


Motion of Geomagnetic north pole from 1831 to 2001. Image credit: NASA.

The life cycles of many animals have been shown to be dependent upon this magnetic field. Many birds, for example, are said to be able to "see" the magnetic field, and use it for purposes of guidance and navigation. The famous case of homing pigeons, having long been bred to enhance this capability, can cover over 1,000 miles of unfamiliar territory in as short a time as two days, making them useful for even military purposes up until their replacement with electronic devices in 1956. Today some still breed and race homing pigeons as a hobby, but smart participants pay careful attention to the activity of the Sun, knowing that solar storms can alter the Earth's magnetic field, which has been known to cause pigeons to become disoriented and even lost.

Other research indicates that a whole array of biospheric characteristics, beyond just navigation, are not only responsive to the existence of earth's geomagnetic field, but also to its very slight temporal and spatial variations (keep in mind the Sun's role in determining the magnetic and electrical relationship on the Earth). In the 1970's, Russian scientist Aleksandr P. Dubrov surveyed a very broad range of relevant material from the Soviet Union and the United States, compiling an extensive picture of the relation of various biological activities to the geomagnetic field.16"The Geomagnetic Field and Life," A. P. Dubrov, 1978 Though this work is much too extensive to go into detail here, it is quite significant. Daily activities of plants, such as root secretion, respiration, and photosynthesis rate, were found to change in correlation with changes in the geomagnetic field (GMF). Tests shielding animals from the GMF resulted in some cases in strange behavior (e.g. mice spending long periods of time on their backs), and negative physical effects (e.g. organ mutation or failure), sometimes taking a few generations for the problems to manifest. The activities and communication of insects are affected, as was seen with the diminished ability of bees to communicate the location and direction of food in a stronger GMF. Even the body size of animals showed evidence of correlation with the GMF. 4000 years of skeletal samples were shown to change in correspondence with variations in the earth's magnetic moment, while a survey of the sizes of fox skulls from across the Soviet Union showed that they were smallest in regions where the GMF was most intense. In addition, experiments with raising generations of Drosophylia flies in various magnetic environments showed alterations in their genes and chromosomes.

With all this in mind, recall the structured, but still little-understood relationship between the solar and galactic activities and the magnetic and electrical environment here on earth.

In addition to the geomagnetic significance of this northern region, the interaction of the geographic north pole with the electromagnetic radiation from the sun also has unique geometric characteristics here. Photosynthesis is the continuous transformation of this radiation into the structure and free energy of the near-surface biosphere, a process at the base of its entire food chain of life. As discussed in other material presented by this team, NAWAPA is designed to boost this power of the biosphere by managing the water cycle of North America, providing water where it is the sole missing component to green life in the desert and semi-arid regions of the continent, resulting in increased useful transformation of cosmic radiation, cooler climates, and generally more green.17"NAWAPA from the Standpoint of Biospheric Development."

Again, in the northern regions of the continent, containing the northern sections of the NAWAPA system, we find a unique region in our planetary interaction in this process. Within the Arctic Circle the Sun's electromagnetic radiation comes in at a very low angle, when it comes in at all. On certain days of the year the sun will either never set, retaining its low level, or will remain below the horizon, refusing to rise. This reaches the extreme at the pole, where half the year is the daylight of a low sun, while the other half is night. Interestingly, where this is the most extreme, in the deep arctic (a place long thought to have no life), we find life, but of specific types. Instead of photosynthesizing bacteria, chemoautotrophs predominate. In addition, the viral population in the arctic ocean is different than the viral population of the rest of the world's oceans.

Not only does the Arctic region's low and irregular solar angle pose a challenge for photosynthetic life, but animal life also requires specific qualities of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation. Animal life, including the human body, utilizes a portion of the Sun's ultraviolet light to generate vitamin D. In the 1920's, at a time when rickets was still a significant problem in child populations in the United States, it was discovered that exposure to a specific part of the UV spectrum of sunlight is necessary for our skin to produce vitamin D to prevent or cure rickets. UV lamp exposure became a treatment for children not able to get the natural sunlight exposure required, as in the arctic regions (although now enhanced food products are the preferred source for vitamin D).

There is much more that can be discussed here, but what has been presented is enough to demonstrate that Vernadsky's view (as cited in the opening of this report) rings true. Life, in addition to responding directly to cosmic radiation, is always integrated with the unique environment created by the interaction of cosmic radiation with the lithosphere and biosphere. Taking the entirety of this process of the Earth's interaction with cosmic radiation, we find, in all respects, a unique condition of this interaction at the polar regions, making them key to understanding the fundamental character of this interaction. What becomes clear is the need to take up the specific study of the role of cosmic radiation in nearly all aspects life and the biosphere. Until all the branches of science are situated in this proper context, that of the stellar-galactic processes which bound the earth, our scientific knowledge will be arbitrarily constrained. NAWAPA will stand as a basis upon which we will attain a better view.

THE MISSION

Standing in the Alaskan mountains, from the foreman’s watchtower you lean with outstretched arms onto the cold metal railing. Viewing the activities below, two great, empty reservoirs lay before you, being prepared by teams scurrying over the landscape. Yellow dump-trucks the size of a house track through the freshly turned dirt beside the Copper River, cranes with massive outstretched arms are moving entire trees, geological experts, maps in hand, survey the land. Just then the awaited report comes in through your radio, the tunnel boring machine has completed the 30 mile Alaskan tunnel, connecting what will soon be two of the largest man-made bodies of water in the world, the Copper and Tanana reservoirs. The signal starts clear, complete with cheers in the background, but quickly begins to temporarily cut in and out. Looking overhead, you see the beautiful dance of the green aurora calling mankind's attention to our connection to the galaxy.

Here NAWAPA will stand, not only at the physical location of the intersection of galactic, solar, and terrestrial processes, but as the intersection of abiotic, biospheric, and human creative (nooetic) anti-entropic development. The intersection within one universe, of whose intention the creativity of man is the intended pinnacle. Let the completion of NAWAPA inform us of that role.

Footnotes

1"The Biosphere," first published in Russian in 1926; English translation, David B. Langmuir, New York, Copernicus, 1998
4Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, http://www.NASA.gov/THEMIS
10The author can not stress enough the importance of Kepler's original works. If his "The New Astronomy" and "The Harmonies of the Worlds," taken together, were understood by leading scientists today, science, and society more generally, would be on a completely different level today.
11For the history of the imperial introduction of modern empiricism see "The True History of Today's Scientific and Economic Empiricism," by Michael Kirsch.
14For a video presentation see, "Decay Rates and Time."
16"The Geomagnetic Field and Life," A. P. Dubrov, 1978